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Uncovering the Mysteries of Dark Matter: New Research and Discoveries

Dark matter is a hypothetical substance in astronomy and cosmology that cannot be detected through emitted radiation, but is inferred from the gravitational effects it has on visible matter. This substance is believed to explain the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and other instances of “missing mass” in the universe. According to current observations, dark matter and dark energy account for the vast majority of the mass in the observable universe, as seen in structures larger than galaxies and Big Bang cosmology.

The evidence for the presence of dark matter includes the rotational and orbital velocities of galaxies, gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters like the Bullet Cluster, and the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters.

We haven’t yet seen dark matter directly, but it’s a mystery component that accounts for about 27% of the cosmos. For many years, dark matter has been the subject of research, and new studies are still being carried out to better understand this enigmatic element. Here are a few recent discoveries in the study of dark matter:

Direct Detection Experiments

By seeking for specific interactions between dark matter and ordinary matter, direct detection investigations look for dark matter particles. In an unexpected overabundance of events, the XENON1T experiment, which employed a tank of liquid xenon to look for dark matter particles, may have found evidence of dark matter.

Galactic Dynamics

The formation and growth of galaxies are thought to be significantly influenced by dark matter. Recent studies have examined the distribution of dark matter in galaxies using gravitational lensing and observations of galaxy rotation curves. According to these investigations, galaxies’ dark matter distribution is finer than previously imagined.

Modified Gravity

Modified theories of gravity have been put forth by some researchers in an effort to explain the effects of dark matter that have been observed without the creation of brand-new particles. The predictions of these modified gravity theories have recently been investigated, and they have been contrasted with observations of the large-scale structure of the universe.

Indirect Detection Experiments

Indirect detection Experiments look for gamma rays or neutrinos, which are byproducts of the annihilation or disintegration of dark matter. The characteristics of dark matter particles have been constrained by recent findings made by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

According to other theories, dark matter could be constituted of unusual particles like axions or sterile neutrinos, as well as objects like black holes or cosmic strings.

One of the most active fields of astrophysics and particle physics study is the hunt for dark matter. For a thorough knowledge of the universe and its evolution, it is imperative to comprehend the nature of dark matter. The continuous hunt for dark matter continues to offer important new insights into the nature of the universe and the fundamental principles that govern it, even while many issues remain unsolved.

Recent studies have given insight on the composition of dark matter, showing that it is predominantly made up of particles that are either “cold” or slightly “warm,” with masses larger than 2 keV. Models of dark matter that contain particles with masses equal to or below this boundary have been ruled out by the study. This discovery sheds important light on the characteristics of dark matter, which continues to be one of the universe’s most mysterious and elusive substances.

Note: this information has been taken from the digital media

Swikriti Dandotia